Endometriosis

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Endometriosis
Endometriosis location

Endometriosis is a non-malignant disease in which some tissue similar to the tissue of the uterus appears outside the womb. Endometriosis affects about 10 percent of all women. Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases.

Causes

The causes of endometriosis are not completely clear. It is more common in obese women as well as alcohol addicts. Endometriosis is also influenced by heredity, excessive levels of estrogen in the body, immunity disorders.

The essence of endometriosis is the appearance of tissue, similar to the tissue of the uterus, outside the womb. It may appear in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, colon, bladder, peritoneum, vagina, cervix and etc. In these regions endometrioid spots, cysts, adhesions, blisters, bruising, thickening and inflammation around them form.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of endometriosis are very diverse and depend on the location where the spots are. The intensity of the symptoms is completely unrelated to the clinical stage and the spread of the endometrial tissue. Sometimes even a tiny area of this tissue might cause severe pain. In other cases even advanced endometriosis does not cause any symptoms.

Most commonly endometriosis causes these symptoms:

  • Pain before, during and after menstruation;
  • Pain in the pelvic area;
  • Painful intercourse, pain during defecation, painful urination;

About one-third of women with endometriosis may be infertile. Sometimes this disease causes bleeding during defecation and urination, irregular periods, pre-menstrual spotting and brown discharge during menstruation.  Endometriosis is divided into IV stages.

Diagnosis

Endometriosis is suspected based on the patient’s complaints as well as gynecological examination. You can also track pathological changes using ultrasound.

However, the disease is confirmed by laparoscopic surgery. During the surgery endometriosis might be diagnosed and also treated – adhesions are separated, cysts are removed, endometrioid spots are destroyed. You can also take some material for histological diagnosis.

Treatment

The treatment of endometriosis is chosen individually. It depends on the woman’s age, symptoms and whether she still wants to have children. During the first stage of endometriosis the patient is put for observation. During later stages the disease is treated using hormonal drugs. Most commonly hormonal contraceptive pills are combined with surgery (laparoscopy).

   

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