First Aid

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First Aid
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In this short review we would like to run through some most common life-threatening conditions and provide you with some tips about the first aid in case of them: diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, stroke, myocardial infarction, bronchial spasm, intoxication, trauma, poisoning in a fire, heat stroke, anaphylactic shock, collapse, lightning strike, apnea.

First Aid: Diabetes Mellitus

Causes: too low or too high glucose blood levels because of delayed administration of insulin or overdosing insulin, violation of dietary rules.

What to do: if breathing is impaired or the heart stops, you have to start artificial respiration mouth to mouth and chest compressions. If insulin administration was delayed, administer it as fast as possible. If a patient has not eaten in time, he must be given white bread or other foods with plenty of carbohydrates.

First Aid: Epilepsy

Cause: attack of seizures, because of which patient can bite in his tongue or urinate involuntary.

What to do: control the patient’s movements; keep him from hurting himself, try to put a patch of cloth (a glove, a scarf and so on) between his teeth. Do not force his mouth to open.

First Aid: Myocardial Infarction

Cause: coronary insufficiency.

What to do: put a tablet of nitroglycerin under the patient’s tongue, if possible, give the patient a tablet of aspirin and call a doctor. When the tablet of nitroglycerin melts, wait for 5-10 minutes and give the second tablet. After this one melts in another 5-10 minutes give the patient the third one.

First Aid: Bronchial Spasm

Cause: accumulation of carbonic acid in the blood and impaired brain supply with oxygen.

What to do: find an inhaler (Salbutamol) in the patient’s pocket, put it in his/her mouth, and push it 2-3 times during inspiration.

First aid: Intoxication

Cause: alcohol, drugs, some drugs.

What to do: if the patient does not breathe and the heart has stopped, start artificial ventilation and heart compressions. If the patient is conscious, clean his/her stomach by giving him/her a lot of water (it might be salty) to drink. If possible, give him some activated charcoal when waiting for the doctor to arrive.

First Aid: Trauma

Cause: hard blow, traumatic bleeding and so on.

What to do: if a limb is traumatized, apply a tourniquet to stop the bleeding, cool down the injured location with ice. If the bones may be injured, try not to move the victim too much. In cases of head and neck traumas, do not move the patient’s neck!

First Aid: Poisoning in a Fire

Cause: accumulation of carbonic acid, carbon monoxide in the blood.

What to do: take the victim into the fresh air as fast as possible, loosen his/her clothes and immediately start doing artificial ventilation (if the patient is not breathing).

First Aid: Heat Stroke

Cause: the organism’s inability to remove excessive heat with sweat.

What to do: lay down the victim in a cool place or in a shade, loosen his/her clothes; if possible, put cold compresses on the head, in the armpits and on the groins.

First Aid: Anaphylactic Shock

Cause: reaction to a particular drug, food or insect stings.

What to do: lay the victim down comfortably and fix his/her tongue, by lifting up his/her chin and lower jaw, so it would not block the airways. Remove all possible allergens: stop administering drugs or remove the insect sting, grease the sting location with alcohol and cool it down with ice. If possible, administer 0.3-0.5 mg of adrenalin.

First Aid: Collapse

Cause: circulatory insufficiency after heavy bleeding, a blow to the solar plexus or perineum.

What to do: at first remove the cause of the collapse, afterwards raise the victim’s legs higher than the body level, so the brain would be better supplied with blood.

First Aid: Lightning Strike

Cause: if there is a bluish tree-shaped tangle on the victim’s body, it is clear that he/she has experienced a lightning strike and has lost consciousness.

What to do: start artificial respiration as fast as possible. When the patient regains consciousness, give him a lot of fluids (just not alcohol or coffee). Besides, you need to take care of the burned skin, blanket the victim and go to the hospital as fast as possible.

First Aid: Apnea

Cause: cessation of breathing because of damaged esophagus, trachea, bronchi, viral respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma, overdosing of sedatives and etc.

What to do: remove the mucus, foreign bodies, fix the tongue if it has stuck, pull the lower jaw up and make artificial respiration mouth to mouth or mouth to nose. If the heart has stopped, do the heart compressions.


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